Absorbable Organic Halogen Compounds (usually chlorine). AOX is a measure of the amount of chlorine that is combined with organic substances. It is formed during bleaching with chlorine-containing chemicals, as well as naturally.
Purification of waste water using microorganisms. The principle is the same as occurs in nature, but the breakdown is much faster. In oxygen-rich environments, dissolved lignin is primarily broken down to carbon dioxide and water.
Chemicals that are used to dissolve or transform the lignin in wood and remove extractive matter. Normal bleaching chemicals include oxygen, ozone, hydrogen peroxide and chlorine dioxide.
Elementary Chlorine Free. ECF-bleaching involves bleaching without elementary chlorine, i.e. using chlorine dioxide instead of chlorine gas.
An element that occurs in wood. Phosphorus is found in nutritive salts that can cause overfertilisation and oxygen deficiency.
Sulphur compounds such as hydrogen sulphide, dimethyl sulphide and mercaptans. These compounds are formed during pulp digestion and are highly odorous even at low concentrations.
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Formed during combustion of biofuel (CO2-biogenic) and oil (CO2-fossil). Absorbed by photosynthesis to form organic substances.
An element found in wood. Nitrogen is found in nutritive salts and has a fertilising effect. An excess of nutritive salts in water can cause algal bloom, which leads to oxygen deficiency.
Nitrogen oxides (NOX)
A group of gases consisting of nitrogen and oxygen that are produced during combustion. In humid air, nitric oxides are converted to nitric acids that fall as acid rain. Discharges of nitric oxides also have a fertilising effect.
Environmental management system
Overall management system comprising systematic procedures in accorance with the environmental policy. Can be certified in accordance with EMAS or ISO 14001.
Salts, minerals and metals as well as most matter not containing carbon.
Contains carbon, unlike inorganic matter, and is the building block for plants and animals.
Particles formed during combustion of bark, caustic liquor, etc.
Chemical pulp in which chips are digested in alkaline pulping liquor.
Suspended matter (SÄ70)
A measure of the quantity of particles that can be filtered through a fine-meshed filter.
An element found in sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and other odorous gases. Sulphur in emissions from the pulp industry is primarily from digester chemicals and oil.
Sulphur dioxide (SO2)
A gas consisting of sulphur and oxygen that is formed during combustion of sulphurous fuels such as black liquor and oil. In contact with humid air, sulphur dioxide is converted to sulphuric acid. Emissions contribute to acidification.
Totally Chlorine Free. TCF-bleaching involves bleaching without the use of chlorine-containing chemicals.
Total organic carbon. Indicates the amount of organic material and is used primarily to monitor discharges to waste water, but is also one of many measures of pulp quality.
Indicator of pulp strength when pulled. (cf. Tear strength) Measured in kNm/kg.
Indicator of pulp strength when torn. (Cf. Tensile strength.) Measured in Nm2/kg.
Measure of the tensile strength of individual fibres.
A measure of how easy or difficult it is to dry pulp. This value is critical for the drying process.